A Glossary of Semantics and Pragmatics (Glossary Of...) by Alan Cruse

By Alan Cruse

This easy-to-use consultant illuminates key recommendations and phrases in semantics and pragmatics and the examine of which means because it is conveyed via language.

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The presence of evidentials in Turkic and Iranian languages spoken next to each other may also be accounted for by areal diffusion. That is, we typically find evidentials in contiguous areas. Amazonia is a high spot for evidentiality. Many Amazonian groups share the cultural convention of being ‘precise’. Yet, not every Amazonian language has a grammaticalized evidentiality system. Ashéninka Perené (Chapter 10) and Aguaruna (Chapter 11) compensate for this ‘gap’ with a plethora of evidentiality strategies and other ways of specifying how one knows things.

Choosing and using an appropriate evidential shapes communication, and may itself be shaped by established and by emerging cultural conventions. Different experiences may require different choices from the evidential system. 1 Certainty, control, and first person Evidentials may have non-evidential overtones. One is likely to be certain about what one has seen with one’s own eyes. The visual or a direct experience evidential tends to have overtones of commitment to the truth of utterance, control over the information, and certainty.

If the hunter saw tracks of a white-lipped peccary a long time ago, and the tracks were fresh, he will use distant past experiential. experiential-3 White-lipped peccaries evidently passed by (here) (fresh tracks were discovered a long time ago) The source of inference may be specified by two evidentials in one clause. marker quotative It is inferred (that) s/he says, “It’s raining” pi33 phæ33 di33 inferred In Ersu (§6 of Chapter 6) the inferred evidential can occur together with either reported or quotative evidential.

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