A History of Women Philosophers: Modern Women Philosophers, by Londa Schiebinger (auth.), Mary Ellen Waithe (eds.)

By Londa Schiebinger (auth.), Mary Ellen Waithe (eds.)

1. Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle.- I. Biography.- II. Works.- III. common Philosophy.- IV. Feminism.- V. Conclusions.- 2. Kristina Wasa, Queen of Sweden.- I. Biography.- II. Philosophy.- 1. conventional exams of Kristina’s Views.- 2. Kristina’s Philosophical Development.- three. Kristina and Descartes.- four. spiritual Skepticism.- five. Philosophy and Linguistics.- 6. The Maxims.- 7. Misogyny and Feminism.- III. Conclusions.- three. Anne Finch, Viscountess Conway.- I. Biography.- II. effect on Leibniz.- III. Philosophical Writing.- IV. Summary.- four. Sor Juana Inés De los angeles Cruz.- I. Biography.- II. Prose Philosophical Works.- 1. Carta Atenagórica.- 2. Respuesta.- III. Philosophical Poetry.- 1. Sueño.- 2. Sonnets.- IV. Conclusions.- five. Damaris Cudworth Masham.- I. Biography.- II. Works.- 1. Correspondence.- 2. religion and Reason.- three. girls, schooling and Reason.- four. Epistemology, Feminism and ethical Philosophy.- III. Conclusions.- 6. Mary Astell.- I. Biography.- II. Works.- III. non secular Epistemology and Women.- 1. situation of Women.- 2. ladies, Epistemology and Reason.- three. Marriage and Subjection of Women.- IV. Epistemology and non secular Knowledge.- 1. cause and Revelation.- 2. no matter if subject Can Think.- three. no matter if God is the effective reason behind soreness and Pleasure.- V. Conclusions.- 7. Catharine Trotter Cockburn.- I. Biography.- II. Philosophical Writings.- III. Epistemological Foundations of ethical Law.- 1. wisdom of advantage and Vice.- 2. usual Conscience.- IV. Epistemological origin of Religion.- 1. The function of Rewards and Punishments.- 2. On Revelation.- V. The Immortality of the Soul.- 1. no matter if God could upload suggestion to Matter.- VI. Summary.- VII. Conclusions.- eight. Gabrielle Émilie Le Tonnelier De Breteuil Du Châtelet-Lomont.- I. Biography.- II. Ethics, faith and Philosophy of Language.- 1. Ethics.- 2. Philosophy of Religion.- three. Philosophy of Language.- III. Collaborative Works.- 1. Collaboration on Voltaire’s Éléments.- 2. Collaboration with Voltaire on Traité de Métaphysique.- IV. Metaphysics.- 1. Writings on Metaphysics and Philosophy of Science.- 2. the improvement of du Châtelet’s perspectives on Metaphysics.- three. loose Will: difficulties for Newtonian Science.- four. fixing the issues of Newtonianism.- five. response to du Châtelet’s Metaphysics.- V. Philosophy of Science.- 1. fireplace, mild and Color.- 2. medical Method.- VI. Conclusions.- nine. Mary Wollstonecraft.- I. Biography.- II. Works.- III. Philosophy.- 1. Human Nature.- 2. Ethics.- three. Social and Political Philosophy.- four. Philosophy of Education.- five. affects on Wollstonecraft’s Philosophy.- 6. Critique of Rousseau.- IV. Conclusions.- 10. Clarisse Coignet.- I. Introduction.- II. Metaethics and ethical Philosophy.- 1. the hot technological know-how of Morality.- 2. Freedom, a truth of Human Nature.- three. guy, the author of Morality.- four. accountability, a legislations of Conscience.- III. Political and Social Philosophy.- 1. The country, an Extension of person Morality.- 2. The Social Contract.- three. The Separation of faith and Morality.- four. Women’s Suffrage and Women’s Destiny.- IV. Conclusions.- eleven. Antoinette Brown Blackwell.- I. Biography.- II. Philosophy.- 1. Metaphysics.- 2. Truth.- three. Perception.- four. Time.- five. God.- 6. Immortality.- 7. Mind/Body Problem.- eight. Nature of the Sexes.- III. Conclusions.- 12. Julie Velten Favre.- I. Biography.- II. Works.- III. Philosophy.- 1. The cohesion of ethical Law.- 2. Woman’s ethical Vocation.- three. the good Human Family.- four. An “Ethics of Abundance”.- IV. Conclusions.- thirteen. girls Philosophers of the 17th, Eighteenth and 19th Centuries.- I. The 17th Century.- 1. Anna Maria van Schurman.- 2. Bathsua Pell Makin.- three. Elisabeth of Bohemia, Princess Palatine.- four. Helena Lucretia Cornaro Piscopia.- II. The Eighteenth Century.- 1. Laura Bassi Verati.- 2. Catharine Sawbridge Macaulay-Graham.- three. Sophia, an individual of caliber [pseud.].- four. (Marie) Olympe de Gouges (Marie de Gouzes).- five. Mary Fairfax Somerville.- 6. Anna Doyle Wheeler.- III. The 19th Century.- 1. Catharine Ward Beecher.- 2. Harriet Martineau.- three. Harriet Hardy Taylor Mill.- four. Jenny Poinsard d’Héricourt.- five. George Eliot (Marian Evans).- 6. Clemence Royer.- 7. Juliette Lambert l. a. Messine Adam.- eight. Christine Ladd-Franklin.- nine. Hortense Allart de Meritens.- IV. Conclusions.

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Cavendish's great purpose in writing was to achieve fame. "26 She identified three avenues to fame in the England of her day: leadership in government, military conquest, and innovation in philosophy. As government and military were closed to her by law, she took up natural philosophy. In her Description of a New World she wrote: Though I cannot be Henry the Fifth, or Charles the Second, yet I 6 Margaret Cavendish endeavour to be Margaret the First; and although I have neither power, time nor occasion to conquer the world as Alexander and Caesar did; yet rather then [sic] not to be Mistress of one, since Fortune and the Fates would give me none, I have made a World of myownP This was not, in her view, such a poor alternative, given that men "hold Books as their Crowne ...

For how are philosophical issues defined, and who are the definers? Most of the subjects of this volume were a part of ongoing philosophical circles that were dominated by men. " They often travelled in woman-centered domains or addressed their writings primarily to other women. The writings of feminist philosophers were certainly well-known to circles of male philosophers, yet they appear xxxviii Introduction to Volume III to me to have advanced philosophical discussion mostly among women. If this observation is well-founded, then male philosophers, excepting perhaps Leibniz and Mill, ignored, discounted, and suppressed feminist philosophy.

108-119. See also, Grant, Margaret the First, pp. 193-194. Margaret Cavendish, The Description of a New World, called The Blazing World (London, 1666), Preface. Ibid. Margaret Cavendish, Poems and Fancies, 2nd ed. (London, 1656), Preface. " Margaret Cavendish, Observations on Experimental Philosophy, "Observations Upon the Opinions of some Ancient Philosophers," p. 1-2. , Preface.

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