By Guglielmo Cinque
One of many world's prime syntacticians provides facts for finding Adverb words within the specifiers of particular useful projections inside of a singular and good articulated conception of the clause. during this idea, either adverbs and heads, which encode the useful notions of the clause, are ordered in a inflexible series. Cinques state-of-the-art idea means that the constitution of usual language sentences is way richer than formerly assumed.
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Extra resources for Adverbs and Functional Heads: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective (Oxford Studies in Comparative Syntax)
The harbor was destroyed as completely as they think the town was destroyed. How often do you think he will visit us? MAI Gianni ti farebbe del male! 'Never (focus movement) G. ' When possible, wh-movement is apparently allowed to subvert the relative order between two AdvPs. So, for example, although gia 'already' must precede manner AdvPs (see Tratta gia male il suo assistente 'He is already treating his assistant badly' versus *Tratta male gia il suo assistente 'He is badly already treating his assistant'), it can follow a manner AdvP if this has been wh-moved (Quanto male tratta gia il suo assistente?
So, for example, there is evidence that most classes of "higher" AdvPs also have this use. "Higher" AdvPs in Italian, as a rule, cannot occur after a finite verb (in a sentence-final position, unless they are "de-accented"):80 (126) a. *Gianni lo merita francamente/fortunatamente/evidentemente/probabilmente/ forse/ . . *G. deserves it frankly/luckily/evidently/probably/perhaps/ . ' b. Gianni lo merita, francamente/fortunatamente/evidentemente/probabilmente/ forse/ . . The same position, however, becomes immediately available if another constituent follows the adverb, in which case, as noted in Belletti (1990, 130, n.
Compare (78)and (79): (76) a. Zij zegt dat hij waarschijnlijk erg ziek is. ' b. *Zij zegt dat hij erg ziek waarschijnlijk is. (77) Erg ziek is hij waarschijnlijk niet. ' a. Het is zo dat hij helaas waarschijnlijk ziek is. ' b. *Het is zo dat hij waarschijnlijk helaas ziek is. 50 (cf. ' Koster relates the difference between the predicative AP case (77) and the AdvP case (79) to the fact that movement of the AdvP to first position is apparently not a genuine instance of wh-movement, as witnessed by the fact that no of-proform exists for AdvPs (see (80)) and that no unbounded movement is available to them (see (81)) (unlike the AP case):51 (80) *Waarschijnlijk dat is hij ziek.