Analysis of a molecular genetic neuro-oncology study with by Betensky R.A., Louis D.N.

By Betensky R.A., Louis D.N.

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Step 3 Layout Step 4 Results: Formation of three hydrogen bonds • • • • How many hydrogen bonds are between these two bases (Step 2)? What are these two bases? How many hydrogen bonds are between these two bases (Step 4)? What are these two bases? What We Have Learned • Now we know the following: 1. DNA is the genetic material. 2. DNA consists of a sequence of four types of nucleotides, each with a different base (A, C, T, G). These DNA sequences exist as pairs of strands that run in opposite directions in a double helix.

These coding units are called (a) (b) (c) (d) Codons Anticodons Nucleotides Polynucleotides How DNA Stores Information 35 10. Phosphodiester bonds connect (a) (b) (c) (d) Two phosphates Two nitrogenous bases Two sugars Two strands of DNA Answers 1. b 2. d 3. c 4. a 5. c 6. d 7. d 8. b 9. a 10. c Module 3 Cell Cycle and DNA Replication: How Does DNA Replicate in Preparation for Cell Division? What Is the Cell Cycle? • Cells are structural and functional units of organisms. • All cells contain DNA, which encodes all the genetic information of an organism.

How DNA stores information (to be learned in this module). 2. How the information is used (to be learned in a future module). 3. How the information is passed on to future generations (to be learned in a future module). How DNA Stores Information • As we said before, the bases of DNA resemble the letters of the alphabet. • In DNA, three consecutive bases form a “word,” called a codon. • A series of codons forms a “sentence,” called a gene. • Genes are the basic units of inheritance. They are responsible for the synthesis of proteins of all living organisms.

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