By Rym Ayadi, Georges Pujals
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Extra info for Banking Mergers and Acquisitions in the EU: Overview Assessment and Prospects
88 What prospects for the banking industry in the EU? 53 reached the threshold considered critical, in general the majority of the countries have tended to reach it, but at different degrees. Indeed, in 2001, two major M&A operations were aborted due to a risk of dominant position at the national level: the failures of the bid for Abbey National by Lloyds TSB due to the veto of national competition authorities in the UK and of the proposed merger between SEB and Swedbank in Sweden due to the opposition by competition services in the European Commission.
Gross income56 measure is preferred to net income57 one to avoid the differences in taxation between the European countries. ROA is a good overall indicator of a banking organization’s performance that illustrates the ability of a bank to generate profits from the assets at its disposal. It has the disadvantage however of not accounting for the profits generated from the off balance sheet operations. ROE is an alternative measure of profitability designed to reflect the return to owners’ investment.
1 Balance-sheet ratios analysis54 Four sets of balance-sheet ratios are examined including cost, profitability, risk and activity ratios. – The cost ratios include cost to income ratio which permits to examine total costs (non interest expenses and interest expenses) to total operating revenues. This ratio reflects the ability of the bank to generate revenue from its expenditures. Furthermore, for many banks, revenues reflect income earned from the balance sheet as well from the off balance sheet55.