By Gregory G. Schwartz, Michael W. Weiner (auth.), Saul Schaefer M.D., Robert S. Balaban Ph.D. (eds.)
The program of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to the cardiovascular procedure is a comparatively new phenomenon. Its skill to noninvasively study myocardial metabolism has ended in its use to respond to uncomplicated questions in animal types of standard and diseased myocardium. Extension of those investigations into the area of human myocardial metabolism has been made attainable by means of the arrival of particularly high-field magnets with spectroscopy services and enough bore dimensions to permit human reviews. whereas ongoing and destiny reviews promise to reinforce our figuring out of myocardial metabolism, their good fortune will, partially, depend upon an intensive knowing of the technical and biologic facets of cardiovascular MRS, in addition to the present country of study within the many parts encompassed by means of this self-discipline.
it really is with idea that the current monograph has been written. The association and content material may still lend this booklet to either the start reader who's yet no longer familiar with cardiovascular MRS, in addition to to the lively investigator who needs to consult a quantity that offers with the various problems with this box in a concise yet whole demeanour. The monograph is established with a basic evaluate of the sphere, through a piece addressing the technical problems with cardiovascular MRS. the following part is dedicated to biologic problems with either basic and irregular myocardial metabolism, essentially dedicated to investigations utilizing phosphorus-31. this can be by way of a piece facing extra really expert concerns, normally related to different nuclei akin to protons, carbon, and sodium. eventually, the medical functions of cardiovascular MRS are addressed.
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Extra resources for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Accessible end of the magnet, enclosing all the patient-handling equipment and providing ample space for a physician to be in direct contact with the patient. The room is electrically attached to a cylindrical screen that encloses all the NMR coils in the bore of the magnet (for example, the screen may comprise copper foil that lines the entire magnet bore) and is capped off at the far end of the magnet with conducting mesh or sheet. The rf filtering is limited to the few leads entering the room, but the area of screening conductor is larger than in the first approach.
Sl is a passive diode-blocking circuit that turns the transmitter coil off during reception; S2 and S3 are passive diode-blocking circuits, composed of small resonant loops also tuned to the coil frequency, which turn off the receiver coils during transmission [2}. The effective total tuning capacitance of each coil is (~nl/C;)-1 = C;ln if the n distributed capacitors are equal. The resonant frequency is (~nl/Ci)1/2/ 2nL 112, and the coil impedance is tuned with the capacitance divider on the input.
Oxford Instruments (Osney Mead, Oxford, U. ) make body-sized high-field (~1. 5 T) NMR magnets. Finally, a third option would be to construct the body spectroscopy/imaging system from scratch. The advantages of a commercial imaging/ spectroscopy system include the following: 1) the machine need not be dedicated to cardiac spectroscopy: conventional clinical NMR imaging studies can be performed whenever cardiac spectroscopy is not being done, so that maximum and efficient use of expensive scanner time is realized; 2) there are currently over 1000 clinical high-field body imaging systems in the world potentially capable of human cardiac spectroscopy: a commercial system provides the fastest route to studying human cardiac phosphate metabolism; 3) commercial systems can usually be relied on to provide state-of-the art 1 H NMR imaging and basic to moderately advanced localized spectroscopy capabilities, with regular software and hardware upgrades, extensive technical support, and maintenance 27 services available; and 4) commercial systems are usually sited with access to full patient support facilities.