By Jon Birger Skjaerseth, Tora Skodvin
This quantity provides a close learn of the weather options of ExxonMobil, Shell, and Statoil. With an cutting edge analytical strategy, the authors clarify diversifications at 3 decision-making degrees: in the businesses themselves, within the nationwide home-bases of the firms, and on the overseas point. The research generates policy-relevant wisdom approximately even if and the way company resistance to a practicable weather coverage may be conquer.
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Extra info for Climate Change and the Oil Industry: Common Problems, Different Strategies
Even though corporations do not participate in international regimes, their access as observers to preparatory sessions can vary significantly. We assume that influence will increase as industry has more access to decision-making processes. Decision-making procedures applied in international environmental cooperation vary as well. Unanimity is most demanding, requiring the positive approval of all parties. Under the condition of unanimity, reactive industry influence within one single state can block the efforts of all others.
In our context, regimes can induce new market 2543Chap2 16/7/03 9:57 am 40 Page 40 Climate change and the oil industry opportunities for renewable energy sources as well as technologies for energy efficiency. In addition, international regimes can provide common policy instruments in order to establish equal competitive frameworks. One obvious example is emissions trading, which has received general support by industry. Business and industry tend to prefer internationally harmonised, flexible and cost-effective policy instruments (Skjærseth, 2000).
The 1999 Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) Progress Report, for instance, states that ‘without success in these areas, we cannot succeed in operational or financial terms’. 3 First, the company places a strong emphasis on being in compliance with environmental laws and regulations. This does not necessarily mean that ExxonMobil is less likely to implement self-imposed environmental standards exceeding the level of ambition in existing environmental laws. For example, its annual report states that the company should apply ‘responsible standards’ where environmental laws and regulations do not exist (ExxonMobil, 2000a).