By Hans J. ten Donkelaar, Martin Lammens, Akira Hori
This e-book offers a finished assessment of the advance of the human important apprehensive procedure (CNS) within the context of its many developmental problems as a result of genetic, environmental, and hypoxic/ischemic factors. The introductory chapters supply an summary of the improvement of the human mind and the spinal wire, the mechanisms of improvement as bought in experimental stories of assorted invertebrates and vertebrates, and the reasons of congenital malformations. generally half, the developmental problems of the human mind and the spinal twine are offered in a nearby, roughly segmental method, beginning with neurulation and neural tube defects, and finishing with developmental problems of the cerebral cortex. those are underlined through conscientiously selected scientific case stories, together with imaging info and, while to be had, postmortem verification of the developmental issues concerned. quite a few colour images and illustrations supplement the text.
This moment variation emphasizes the prenatal prognosis by means of ultrasound, MRI, and DTI and implements new classifications of developmental disorders.
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Extra resources for Clinical Neuroembryology: Development and Developmental Disorders of the Human Central Nervous System
This population of cortical neurons migrates from the ganglionic eminences along non-radial routes to reach the cerebral cortex (Anderson et al. 1999, 2001; Lavdas et al. 1999; Marín and Rubinstein 2001). The medial ganglionic eminence is the source of most cortical interneurons, and is also a major source of striatal interneurons (Marín et al. 2000). The tangential migration of postmitotic interneurons from the ganglionic eminences to the neocortex occurs along multiple paths, and is directed in part by members of the Slit and semaphorin families of guidance molecules (Marín et al.
The histogenesis of the cerebellum is summarized in Fig. 19. The main cell types of the cerebellum arise at different times of development and at different locations. The Purkinje cells and the cerebellar nuclei arise from the ventricular zone of the metencephalic alar plates. Bayer et al. (1995) estimated that in man the cerebellar nuclei as well as the Purkinje cells are generated from the early fifth to sixth weeks of development. Towards the end of the embryonic period, granule cells are added from the rhombic lip.
25 The organization of afferent systems and transient cortical circuitry in human fetuses and preterm infants (19, 26, 28 and 31 postconceptional weeks). Glutamatergic projections arising in the thalamus (Th) and the contralateral hemisphere, passing via the corpus callosum (cc), are indicated in red, GABAergic in black and cholinergic projections from the basal nucleus of Meynert (nbM) in thick black lines. The cortical afferents initially synapse in the large subplate (SP) before reaching the cortical plate.