By Mark Richard
Context and the Attitudes collects 13 seminal essays by way of Mark Richard on semantics and propositional attitudes. those essays improve a nuanced account of the semantics and pragmatics of our discuss such attitudes, an account on which in asserting what somebody thinks, we provide our phrases as a 'translation' or illustration of ways the objective of our speak represents the area. A vast variety of subject matters in philosophical semantics and the philosophy of brain are mentioned intimately, together with: contextual sensitivity; pretense and semantics; destructive existentials; fictional discourse; the character of quantification; the position of Fregean experience in semantics; 'direct reference' semantics; de re trust and the contingent a priori; trust de se; intensional transitives; the cognitive function of demanding; and the clients for giving a semantics for the attitudes with no recourse to homes or attainable worlds. Richard's huge, newly written creation supplies an summary of the essays. The advent additionally discusses attitudes learned through tendencies and different non-linguistic cognitive constructions, in addition to the controversy among those that imagine that psychological and linguistic content material is based just like the sentences that categorical it, and those that see content material as primarily unstructured.
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Additional resources for Context and the Attitudes: Meaning in Context, Volume 1
It is not just the fact that the computer’s behavior is appropriate iff sentence B is true, that makes it true to say that it thinks it ought to get its queen out early. It is also that the computer’s dispositions are relevantly similar to the dispositions of people who have articulated beliefs realized by B (and C, and D’s complement). Like such people, the computer is disposed to manipulate certain objects (referred to in the sentences) in certain ways (also picked out in the sentences) in certain situations.
This is, firstly, because sentences of the form ┌I believe that I am F ┐ seem, at least sometimes, to be used to ascribe de se belief and sometimes merely de re belief. , “I believe that Edwina will build a house near mine”) seem to be used to report belief de se but are neither of the form of (1) nor such that they have a colloquial equivalent of the form of (1). ) I will persist in speaking as if (1) gave the canonical form of de se ascriptions—a fiction which, I hope, is no more harmful in this context than the common fiction, in discussions of belief de re, of pretending that ┌ a believes, of that b she’s F┐ is unambiguously de re, while ┌a believes that b is F┐is unambiguously de dicto.
One way in which such a reflection might occur is this: Some ascriptions of belief may imply, not only that a particular proposition is an object of belief, but that it is believed in a certain way—that is, that it is believed under a meaning of a certain sort. It is the task of the remainder of this paper to make it plausible that this indeed is true of ascriptions of belief. Of course, the account of belief ascriptions to be developed will be consistent with the thesis of direct reference, as we have characterized it.