By Anthony R. Zito
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Additional resources for Creating Environmental Policy in the European Union
20 Creating Environmental Policy in the European Union 2 Theoretical Framework Introduction The ﬁrst chapter raised a number of challenges for any theoretical framework attempting to explain EU decision-making. The puzzles suggest that the complex web of EU institutions gives opportunities for member-state governments and other actors to inﬂuence this process. This second chapter seeks to address these challenges by constructing a middle-range approach that explores how EU actors achieve speciﬁc environmental policy outputs.
This coalition is more analogous to an issue network (Heclo, 1978, pp. 102–4). Because of the wide range of interests, conﬂict is frequent within this group, and there is little stability as well as less interdependence and interaction among members. For either type of coalition, the question of leadership will be important, but there may be several different kinds operating within the coalition. Technical experts may exert intellectual leadership while powerful organizations and interests may be able to use resource leadership.
Consequently, although policy change moving beyond the status quo and the lowest common denominator is possible in the lcd bargaining scenario, it is more probable in the entrepreneurial style. The institutions, ideas, and interests present in the EU policy arena will deﬁne the conditions in which the lcd bargaining style will dominate. Using environmental policy as the example, the lcd bargaining mode is likely to operate in the following conditions. First, it is more probable when certain interests (that is, groups external to the EU institutions) control or substantially inﬂuence speciﬁc strategic EU access/veto points that must approve the environmental proposal.