By Ulrich F. Katz
The ebook reports contemporary advancements within the box of deep inelastic electron-proton reactions at excessive momentum transfers. those experiences were made possible via the high-statistics ep collision facts amassed through the experiments ZEUS and H1 on the HERA accelerator at DESY. the traditional version framework for describing deep inelastic scattering and situations past the normal version, in addition to the experimental state of affairs, is mentioned, and the experimental effects are amassed and faced with the theoretical predictions.
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Extra info for Deep Inelastic Positron-Proton Scattering in the High-Momentum-Transfer Regime of HERA
The ﬁrst is based on the DGLAP equations, which are applied to evolve V down to the hadronization scale. V is related to the scale of the hard subprocess either by an ad hoc assumption like V = Q2 or by using the algorithm in conjunction with the O(αs ) or O(α2s ) matrix elements . The latter option is denoted meps and is used for event generation in the lepto program . The second model groups the partons into pairs forming color dipoles, which radiate further partons, until some lower virtuality cutoﬀ is reached .
CC Structure Functions (Neutrino Scattering). Structure function results from deep inelastic ν N scattering have been reported by the experiments CHARM [160, 161], CDHS(W)  and BEBC  at CERN and by CCFR – at Fermilab. Only the latter data have been included in recent PDF analyses. The relevant measurements are those of the CC structure funcCC tions F2,3 for neutrino and for antineutrino beams, which allow a distinction between u-type and d-type PDFs. In addition, unlike-sign dimuon production, ν N → µ− µ+ X, tags charm production via νs → µc or the charge-conjugate process and hence constrains the strange-quark PDF, s(x, Q2 ).
However, currently there is no complete theoretical description of higher-twist terms (see  for more details and  for some recent calculations). 26 2. Deep Inelastic ep Cross Sections Lately, quantitative investigations of the size of higher-twist contributions to DIS structure functions [126, 127] have corroborated the expectation that higher-twist contributions are largest3 at high x and hence are concentrated at low W , indicating that they are irrelevant for the HERA data but play a rˆ ole when deriving PDFs from ﬁxed-target data at high x.