Design of Speech-based Devices: A Practical Guide by Ian Pitt

By Ian Pitt

Developments in know-how have made it attainable for speech output for use rather than the extra ordinary visible interface in either family and advertisement units. Speech can be utilized in events the place visible realization is occupied, similar to whilst using a motor vehicle, or the place a job is advanced and standard visible interfaces will not be potent, similar to programming a video recorder. Speech is also hired in expert diversifications for visually impaired people.

However, using speech has now not been universally winning, probably as the speech interplay is poorly designed. Speech is essentially diverse from textual content, and many the issues may well come up as a result of simplified text-to-speech conversion. Design of Speech-based Devices considers the issues linked to speech interplay, and provides functional solutions.

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29 There is also evidence that poor speech quality makes additional demands upon the short-term memory. Posner and Rossman (1965) hypothesized that speech processing is in competition with other mental processes for limited memory resources, and that an increase in the demands made by the speech-processing task (for example, because the speech is degraded) might therefore be expected to reduce the efficiency with which other tasks are performed. Luce and colleagues (1983) tested this proposition in a series of experiments that compared task performance using information presented either through natural or synthetic speech.

The kind of information provided by this key might include details of the outcome of a successful operation, or the reason(s) for the failure of an unsuccessful operation. Where a considerable amount of further information is available, it is provided through successive presses of the More Information key, with the earlier key presses providing information of a general or high-level nature while further key presses provide progressively greater detail. This accords with the principal of "information scoping" described by Yankelovitch (1994).

However, when subjects were asked to recall digits in the order in which they were presented, performance was significantly worse for the synthetic speech condition. Luce et al. argue that this is because the latter task is significantly more difficult and places increased demand on short-term memory. Luce (1982) presented subjects with passages of fluent connected speech generated either by a human speaker or a speech-synthesizer. He found that subjects presented with the natural speech were better able to answer questions on the semantic content of the message, whereas subjects presented with synthetic speech were better able to answer questions about the syntax and surface structure.

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