By Alyssa Apsel, Xiao Wang, Rajeev Dokania
This ebook covers the basic ideas in the back of the layout of ultra-low energy radios and the way they could shape networks to facilitate quite a few purposes inside healthcare and environmental tracking, considering the fact that they might function for years off a small battery or perhaps harvest power from the surroundings. those radios are exact from traditional radios in that they need to function with very limited assets and occasional overhead. This e-book presents a radical dialogue of the demanding situations linked to designing radios with such limited assets, in addition to primary layout options and useful methods to imposing operating designs. assurance contains built-in circuit layout, timing and regulate issues, basic idea at the back of low energy and time area operation, and network/communication protocol considerations.
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Additional info for Design of Ultra-Low Power Impulse Radios
28. Each stage uses a differential common-source amplifier with tunable LC load, optimized for switching transients of ~ 1 ns. 5 mW in a 90 nm IBM process. The choice of the number of gain stages is made based on the trade-off between power consumption, Rx-sensitivity, tunability, and bandwidth. Since power increases roughly quadratically with gain in a single stage, use of more cascaded lower gain stages enables the designer to reduce the power, while achieving high gain and bandwidth specifications.
11 Study of the Effect of Non-Idealities Non-idealities, particularly associated with process-variation, can change the timing as well as spectral characteristics of the transmitted pulse and so warrant further study. 11 Study of the Effect of Non-Idealities 53 Fig. 20 Power vs data rate of different published schemes and comparision to our work. (ref. are [7, 12, 17–22] in order) Fig. 21 Energy/bit vs data rate of different published schemes and comparison to our work (ref. 1 Effect of Pulse-Width Variation The pulse-width of the impulse wavelet controls the 10-dB bandwidth of the transmission spectrum.
17b), where all the sensor nodes are within the reach of the cluster-head, the nodes can configure their mode of communication to facilitate a time-multiplexed dedicated channel originating between any two nodes. 5 Timing Requirements for an Impulse Radio Design: Synchronization 33 Fig. 17 a Decentralized multi-hop and b centralized cluster-head based network Fig. 18 shows one such timing scheme. In this type of configuration nodes in their immediate vicinity get local dedicated non-overlapping (time division multiple access) channels, on which communication can proceed between the clusterhead and various nodes.