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A characteristic load distribution is needed rather than a characteristic load value. 0 on all stress ranges according to this distribution is prescribed. 2 – Safety and Reliability Guidelines for Design of Wind Turbines − DNV/Risø This is based on the assumption that the long-term stress range distribution is known. The validity of this assumption in the context of wind turbines is discussed later. It is also assumed that variability in the individual damage contributions from the individual stress ranges averages out over the many contributing stress ranges in the long-term distribution.
This can be used to establish an inspection plan. Note in this context that for some limit states such as the fatigue limit state, it may actually be a prerequisite for maintaining the required safety level over the design life that inspections are carried out at specified intervals. 4 Mechanical safety There are several mechanical systems in a wind turbine: • • transmission: hub, shaft, gear, couplings, brakes, bearings and generator mechanical control systems: pitch system, teeter mechanism, yaw system, hydraulic system and pneumatic system The safety of mechanical components will usually be determined by their structural safety as described in previous sections.
A structural reliability analysis of the blade root is carried out, and a simple safety factor calibration is performed. The design of the blade root is governed by the long-term distribution of the bending moment range X. In the long term, the bending moment ranges are assumed to follow an exponential distribution FX ( x) = 1 − exp(− x ) x0 in which x0 = 50 kNm is recognised as a Weibull scale parameter. 9⋅109. The bending moment ranges X give rise to bending stress ranges S = X/W, where W denotes the section modulus of the blade root.