How Writing Came About by Denise Schmandt-Besserat

By Denise Schmandt-Besserat

In 1992, the college of Texas Press released sooner than Writing, quantity I: From Counting to Cuneiform and sooner than Writing, quantity II: A Catalog of close to jap Tokens. In those volumes, Denise Schmandt-Besserat set forth her groundbreaking idea that the cuneiform script invented within the close to East within the past due fourth millennium B.C.--the world's oldest identified approach of writing--derived from an archaic counting gadget. How Writing took place attracts fabric from either volumes to give Schmandt-Besserat's idea for a large public and school room viewers. in keeping with the research and interpretation of a range of 8,000 tokens or counters from 116 websites in Iran, Iraq, the Levant, and Turkey, it records the quick precursor of the cuneiform script.

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Sharp climatic cooling and greater precipitation increased downslope forest expansion, enhanced biological carrying capacity, and allowed small groups to settle along main waterways near forest fringes where they exploited a variety of resources on a more or less year-round basis within relatively small catchment areas. Chatters also argues that salmon were not an important resource during Pithouse I, and clear evidence for extended food storage is absent. Population growth was rapid, perhaps a result of reduced mobility.

Excavated matlodge depressions at Botanie Lake near Lytton (Antiquus Archaeological Consultants Ltd. 1999) yielded an assemblage resulting from the production and resharpening of flake tools used to harvest and process abundant plant food resources (Turner et al. 1990:15). It is not known when matlodges were first used on the Canadian Plateau, but it may have been during the Lochnore phase, with their use persisting through the PPt until EuroCanadian contact in the mid-1800s. 7 [69–84]). Larger points of identical style are also occasionally found.

Suggests that this “multipurpose” bifacial tool form may have initially been developed there and was adopted several hundred years later by Lehman phase groups on the Canadian Plateau through direct interaction with southern groups or as a result of interregional information exchange and trait diffusion. High-quality flakeable lithic materials such as vitreous and fine-grained basalt (dacite) and various silicates from isolated upland sources were in common use during the Lehman phase. Many sites contain unmodified and unused medium-size and large flakes in high densities, indicating that lithic raw materials were abundant in most areas.

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