By Dr. Liam Leonard (auth.)
Collective responses to Ireland’s dramatic transformation from a essentially agrarian and rural society to an industrialised economic system obsessed by means of quick development and improvement happened in levels:
Phase One came about among the "No Nukes" protests of the past due 1970’s while campaigns unique multinational crops or infrastructural tasks perceived as a pollutants danger in the course of years of monetary stagnation.
Phase Two happened after financial buoyancy was once completed, because the calls for of swift development threatened groups, the surroundings and Irish historical past within the face of significant infrastructural initiatives resembling roads, incinerators and gasoline pipelines.
Starting with the Woodquay protests in Dublin, the "No Nukes" protests at Carnsore aspect, the "Shell to Sea" crusade in Mayo and the crusade to save lots of Tara from destruction, those major ecological campaigns, in keeping with the community’s localised experience of position or rural sentiment, have shaped the reaction to those demanding situations that are analysed right here utilizing social circulate theories reminiscent of source mobilisation, political chance, framing and occasion analysis.
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Extra info for The Environmental Movement in Ireland
As white-collar public sector workers, these professionals are not as dependent on industrial growth as private sector professionals. They can oppose industrial development without facing the costs of such opposition. In this way, some new professional or middle-class members can afford to take on challenges to industrial policy in ways not open to other social groups included in corporatist arrangements. Professional experts often provide the leadership for movements. ’ Leadership is exercised through the dissemination of information to potential activists through communication technologies.
It is from within the tensions of this societal dichotomy that the politics of environmental protest has grown as administrations, already faced with a crisis of legitimacy are now confronted by sections of the population not necessarily politicised until faced with a nearby environmental crisis. Campaigns such as Shell to Sea in Co. Mayo show that communities can become politically motivated by a looming environmental crisis, even if economic or legalistic difficulties or even imprisonment result from their resistance to an industrial polluter.
When a movement has identified a societal grievance which can provide the focus of a dispute, its meaning is ‘amplified’ by the mobilisation of resources by that movement. Therefore, mobilisation transforms old meanings, providing movements with the opportunity to challenge the policy creating the grievance. New meanings are then ‘generated’ through the ‘cycles of protest’ (Snow & Benford 1992 141) that emerge from that movement’s ability to exploit the political opportunities arising as a result of their challenge.