By David W. Phillipson
David Phillipson provides an illustrated account of African prehistory, from the origins of humanity via eu colonization during this revised and increased version of his unique paintings. Phillipson considers Egypt and North Africa of their African context, comprehensively reviewing the archaeology of West, East, significant and Southern Africa. His e-book demonstrates the relevance of archaeological study to knowing modern Africa and stresses the continent's contribution to the cultural background of humankind.
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David Phillipson offers an illustrated account of African prehistory, from the origins of humanity via ecu colonization during this revised and increased version of his unique paintings. Phillipson considers Egypt and North Africa of their African context, comprehensively reviewing the archaeology of West, East, significant and Southern Africa.
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Harris 1983; Kimbel et al. 1996; Semaw 2000). Not far to the south, the Bouri area of the Middle Awash has yielded stone ﬂakes and worked bone fragments from the same locality as remains attributed to A. 5 million years ago (Asfaw et al. 1999; de Heinzelin et al. 1999). These specimens and their associations await full investigation; should preliminary accounts be conﬁrmed, these occurrences are by a substantial margin the earliest known incidence of hominid-made artefacts. They are generally attributed to the mode-1 Oldowan industry, discussed below, although they are signiﬁcantly older than the occurrence after which that industry is named (Ludwig and Harris 1998).
However, the previously held belief that such small The emergence of humankind in Africa Fig. 16: Plan of a stone circle on an occupation horizon at site DK in Bed I at Olduvai Gorge (after M. D. Leakey 1971). This may represent the base of a shelter constructed of branches. 41 42 afric an archaeolog y creatures were more abundantly represented in the oldest sites at Olduvai, being then gradually supplanted by larger species, is not supported by recent investigations. Central and south-central Africa Although early hominid fossils have mainly been recovered at sites in eastern and (as will be shown below) South Africa, artefacts of demonstrably PlioPleistocene age are also known from two places in the intervening regions.
B. Leakey 1965; M. D. Leakey 1971; Hay 1976; Johanson et al. 1987; Blumenschine and Masao 1991). 75 million years ago, remains of both hominids are found in association with concentrations of Oldowan stone artefacts. It is considered unlikely that members of two hominid genera would have occupied the same environmental niche at the same time and been engaged 40 afric an archaeolog y Fig. 15: Olduvai Gorge in the manufacture and use of apparently identical artefacts; although this argument is not conclusive, it is probably safe to assume that the Oldowan artefacts were the work of H.